Systematic Catalog of Culicidae

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scapularis (Rondani)

Rondani 1848: 109 (F; as Culex)
Type-loc: Vicinity of Belem, Para, Brazil (LU)

Additional References:
Coher 1948(1949):101 (F*)
Breland 1951:369 (L*)
Yamaguti and LaCasse 1951: [F*].
Lane 1953:665 (M*,F,P*,L*)
Forattini 1965a: (E*).
Belkin, Schick, and Heinemann 1971:19 (Type-loc info., type locality restricted to vicinity of Rio de Janeiro (Guanabara))
Arnell 1976:57 (M*, F*, P*, L*; distr., type locality corrected to vicinity of Belem, Para, Brazil)
Forattini 1996: (E*).
Reinert 2000: [F*].
Forattini 2002: (E*).
Reinert 2002: [F*].
Rossi and Marinez 2003: 472 (distr., Uruguay)
Santos-Mallet et al. 2010: 205-209 (E*)
Berti et al. 2014: (distr, Venezuela).

Synonyms:

Distribution:
Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States; contiguous lower 48, Uruguay, Venezuela

Bionomics:
Aedes scapularis is found at low to moderate elevations throughout most of tropical and subtropical America. It breeds in a wide variety of temporary or semipermanent freshwater situations, primarily temporary rain-filled or stream overflow pools but including pond and swamp margins, rockholes and crabholes, in either sun or partial shade. Females of scapularis attack man readily, and though primarily crepuscular, will bite anytime they are disturbed. (Arnell 1976:61)

Medical Importance:
At least 15 viruses having been isolated from Aedes scapularis including yellow fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses and it also appears to be a vector of Bancroftian filariasis. (Arnell 1976:8)