Systematic Catalog of Culicidae

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pipiens Linnaeus

1758:602 (A).
Type-loc: Near Lake Krankesjo, Silvakra farm, Veberod, Scania, Sweden (USNM)

Additional References:
Blanchard 1905: [F*].
Brolemann 1920: [F*].
Edwards 1932: [F*].
LaCasse and Yamaguti 1950: [F*].
Christophers 1951: [F*].
Darsie 1951:34 (P*).
Mattingly 1951b:331 (syst. review).
Yamaguti and LaCasse 1951: [F*].
Carpenter and LaCasse 1955:284 (M*, F*, L*).
Horsfall 1955:563 (general review).
Mattingly and Knight 1956:102,120 (syst.).
Lewis 1956b:710 (syst).
Bohart and Washino 1957:463 (L*).
Barr 1957a:153 (syst.).
Hara 1957: [F*].
Mattingly 1957c:686 (tax.).
Rioux 1958:244 (M*,L*; tax.).
Ribeiro and Mexia:1966:176 (tax.).
Laffoon and Knight 1971: [F*].
Tewfik and Barr 1974:216 (chromosomes; ? molestus).
Rickenbach, Eouzan, Ferrara and Bailly-Choumara 1976:96 (distr.)
Utrio 1976:129, 135 (L*).
Iglisch 1977:267 (M*).
Harbach and Knight 1980: [F*].
Harbach, Harrison and Gad 1984: [F*] (as molestus Forskal).
Mitchell, Darsie and Monath 1984: 308 (distr., Argentina).
Harbach, Dahl and White 1985:9 (neototype desig.).
Rjazantzeva 1985: [F*].
Harbach 1988: 23 (M*, F, P*, L*; tax., complete syn., keys, bion., distr.)
Abdullah and Merdan 1995:815 (distr.).
Jupp 1996 (M*, F*; key)
Amr et al. 1997:375 (distr.).
Clements 1999: [F*].
Alten, Caglar and Ozer 2000: 28 (distr., Turkey).
Hadjivassilis 2000: 38 (distr., Cyprus).
Spungis 2000: 10 (distr., Latvia).
Orszagh et al. 2001: 20 (distr., Slovakia).
Nicolescu, Vladimirescu and Ciolpan 2002: 20 (distr., Romania).
Ribeiro et al. 2002: 34 (distr., Portugal).
Trari et al. 2002: 331 (distr., Morocco).
Beck et al. 2003: 24 (distr., Luxembourg).
Rossi and Martinez 2003: 472 (distr., Uruguay).

Synonyms:

Distribution:
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, China, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guam, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel (and Gaza Strip & West Bank), Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kenya, Korea; South, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar (includes Glorioso & Juan De NovaIs), Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Nigeria, Norway, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan and South Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom (includes Guernsey; Jersey; Isle of Man), United States; contiguous lower 48, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zimbabwe

Bionomics:
Larvae are found in numerous and variable breeding places ranging from highly polluted cesspits to clear water pools and containers. This species usually breeds in stagnant water in either shaded or unshaded situations. Females readily attack man both indoors and outdoors (Harbach 1988).

Medical Importance:
It has been found naturally infected with Sindbis virus and West Nile viruses in Israel, West Nile and Rift Valley Fever in Egypt, and is a primary vector of periodic Bancroftian filariasis (Harbach 1988).

Subspecies: